On walls and bridges
By Vittorio Jucker
rom the beginning of history, human beings have built bridges and walls as symbols of civilization's two basic needs: communication and protection. Today, these symbols are key components in a strident political debate about immigration. In the West, that debate has been triggered by the seemingly unstoppable flow of dispossessed people streaming into European and North American nations that pride themselves as fundamentally stable, safe and secure.
While a minority welcomes the shift as an antidote to poor economic growth and declining birth rates, an apparently greater number sees it as a hostile act driven by people of non-Christian religions and ethnic backgrounds. The debate turned fiercer than ever in 2015 when German Chancellor Angela Merkel agreed to admit tens of thousands of Syrian refugee
Both symbolically and literally, the choice between walls and bridges has acquired political meaning with potentially serious long-term consequences.
Conservatives such as presidential hopeful Donald Trump and British Prime Minister Teresa May want to build actual walls or barriers to keep illegal immigrants out. Progressive tend to take the opposite approach, welcoming new arrivals and continuing to believe in social integration.
Stated simplistically, the naysayers harp on fear: of being swamped by foreign welfare system leeches, of losing more jobs in an already precarious economic environment, of being in the presence of alien peoples whose civil and religious values are markedly different from those in the West.
Progressives respond to such fears by insisting that behaving humanely isn't a matter of choosing among options. A true democracy should welcome desperate people fleeing crises produced by war, hunger, climate change, or all three. They insist new arrivals be seen in a hopeful context, as a means to enrich culture with improve growth.
They also know Western nations are in dire need of new citizens to compensate for demographic decline. Italy's indigenous population could drop to around 35 million by 2060, halfway to the country's disappearance.
But to wall-builders, who see a war in the making, these hypotheses are misguided and weak.
In historical terms, violent political and institutional change has gone hand-in-hand with massive population shifts. The Western Roman Empire, allegedly overrun by barbarians, collapsed mostly because of the way Rome mishandling the many outsiders already in its midst. By the time these "foreigners" were officially recognized the state was already in disarray. The invasion began from within.
In the late 19th century, some 20 million people migrated from Southern Europe and Russia toward North and South America and Australia, numbers similar to the ones mentioned today. Millions more moved from impoverished rural Europe into cities and also from the destitute southern U.S. — the so-called Great Migration — to the industrialized north. Serious political, racial and cultural problems followed, many of which took decades to admit, let alone resolve. In the end, though, nations proved capable of integrating and absorbing newcomers of all stripes.
Three crucial details are essential to giving the problem some perspective. First, massive population shifts are a recurring historical phenomena; second, the idea that there's ever been complete ethnic and social cohesion and stability is a myth; third, despite all the early turmoil, the new arrivals invariably proved beneficial to Western societies they settled in.
But fear of the unknown is hard to control. On the eve of the Brexit vote, images of African immigrants in Calais attempting to board trucks headed for Channel ferries ignited old school xenophobia. The post-Brexit British government now wants not only to vet ferries and trains but also to build a two-mile-long Calais wall to keep incoming trucks "safe."
Giambattista Vico insisted history was cyclical, and lessons from recent European and American history appear to prove his point.
With Brexit dust settling, only one thing is absolutely clear: nothing is in fact settled.
Rightist movements are beginning to find a home on the center stage of global politics.
Seeing Chinese youth with Lamborghinis in Canada doesn't minimize a malaise seemingly without end.
The affluent West faces a lacerating confluence of immigration, terrorism, and economic stagnation.
More The Economist